Measurement techniques for nanoparticles .
|Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)||Particle size and characterization||<1 μg has to be prepared as a thin film and be stable under an electron beam and a high vacuum||Down to 1 nm||Additions to TEM can provide more information, e.g. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). High-Resolution TEM (HRTEM) or in-situ measurements as Environmental TEM|
|Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)||Particle size and characterization||Sample must be conductive or sputter coated, easier to prepare than TEM sample||Down to 1 nm||Can be used in-situ as Environmental SEM|
|Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)||Particle size and characterization||Samples must adhere to a substrate and be rigid and dispersed on the substrate. The appropriate substrate must be chosen. Air or liquid samples||1 nm to 8 μm||A form of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). Requires less time and cost than SEM and TEM|
|Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS)||Average particle size and size distribution||Sample must be a very dilute suspension||1 nm to 10 μm||Based on Dynamic Light Scattering, an extension of the technique is Photon Cross Correlation Spectroscopy (PCCS) for high concentration opaque suspensions giving particle size and stability of nanoparticles|
|Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM)||Human lung-deposited surface area of nanoparticles||Aerosol, concentrations 0–10,000 μm2/cm3, temp 10–35 °C||Down to 10 nm||Similar to an Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD)|
|Condensation Particle Counter (CPC)||Number of concentrations of particles||Aerosol, concentrations 0–100,000 particles/cm3, can be in a flow, higher temps. to 200 °C possible||2.5 to >3000 nm||Can be used for a flow, hand held models available|
|Differential Mobility Analyzer||Particle size distribution||Aerosol||Down to 3 nm||Can be combined with other techniques to create Tandem DMA or DMPS|
|Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)||Particle size distribution||Aerosol, can be a concentrated sample of 1,000,000–2,400,000 particles/cm3||3–1000 nm||Uses an electrostatic classifier and a CPC, can also add DMA|
|Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA)||Particle size and size distribution||500 μl suspension, temp 5–50 °C, wide range of solvents can be used||10–1000 nm||Use with DLS or PCS|
|X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)||Average particle for a bulk sample||Larger crystalline samples (>1 mg) required||Down to 1 nm||Can identify individual crystals|
|Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy||Particle size composition||Aerosol||100–3000 nm||The efficiency of this method is less for smaller particles|
|Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM)||Particle mass||Aerosol sample with particle density approx. 1 g/cm3||Equivalent to 30–580 nm||Gives only mass information and is not dependent on particle size or shape|
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